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5 Preexisting Conditions That Can Make It Harder to Fight Coronavirus

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Early data from China, where the new coronavirus COVID-19 first started, shows that some people are at higher risk of serious health complications from the new coronavirus. Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this includes people who have serious chronic medical conditions like heart disease, diabetes, lung disease, and mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. 

That is why it can be a relief to discover an application that can be used for multiple health disorders that will help you save more money and that can be used at the comfort of your home just like with D’OXYVA application.

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Here’s why the following conditions increase the risk for COVID-19 complications—and what you should do if you’re affected. 

People with heart disease tend to have other underlying conditions like high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, and lung disease, which weaken the body’s health defense systems (including the immune system) against a viral infection, William Li, MD, physician scientist and author of Eat To Beat Disease: The New Science of How Your Body Can Heal Itself, tells Health. 

“The fever associated with COVID-19 puts additional strain on the body’s metabolic demands, stressing out the already weakened heart,” explains Dr. Li. “Pneumonia, which is commonly seen with COVID-19, makes it harder for the lungs to oxygenate the blood. This puts further stress on the heart.” Plus, inflammation caused by the infection can damage the lining of blood vessels through which the heart pumps blood. 

In February, the American College of Cardiology issued a bulletin to warn patients about the potential increased risk of COVID-19 that included additional precautions to take. The bulletin recommends that people with cardiovascular disease stay up to date with vaccinations, including for pneumonia, and get a flu shot to prevent another source of fever. 

Dr. Li advises regular exercise (while social distancing, of course) and a healthy diet to help strengthen the heart during the COVID-19 era. 

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs), which include asthma and pulmonary hypertension, are diseases of the airways and other parts of the lung. People with CRDs need to be especially vigilant about the coronavirus because one of the possible complications is pneumonia. “Pneumonia compromises the lung, which brings oxygen to the body,” explains Dr. Li. “In patients who already have a chronic respiratory disease, it can be lethal.” 

Besides following the CDC guidelines for handwashing, social distancing, and other coronavirus preventive steps, The COPD Foundation has issued further advice for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (such as chronic bronchitis or emphysema). As reported in Pulmonary Advisor, this includes having at least a 30-day supply of all required medications on hand. If a patient requires an oxygen supply, they should contact their supplier to find out how to prepare for a COVID-19 outbreak in their area. 

Last week, actor Tom Hanks revealed on Instagram that he and his wife, Rita Wilson, tested positive for COVID-19. Hanks previously shared that he has type 2 diabetes, which means he’s at an increased risk of serious illness from the new coronavirus. 

What makes the coronavirus so dangerous for people with diabetes? First, because the immune system is compromised, it’s harder for the body to fight off the coronavirus, states the International Diabetes Foundation (IDF). Viruses also may thrive when blood glucose levels are high. 

People with diabetes have heightened levels of inflammation throughout their bodies, which is another risk factor. “If you have a viral infection, that can turn into pneumonia easier, because diabetes itself is an inflammatory disease,” Maria Pena, MD, director of endocrine services at Mount Sinai Doctors Forest Hills, previously told Health. “It’s also important to note that when a person has diabetes, episodes of stress, like a viral infection, can increase blood sugar levels, which can also lead to complications.”

Everyone should be taking precautionary measures during the COVID-19 outbreak (whether they have preexisting health conditions or not), and the IDF says it’s even more crucial for those living with diabetes. That means washing your hands thoroughly and frequently, avoiding touching your face as much as possible, cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces, and avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of a respiratory illness.

The IDF also recommends additional precautionary steps for those with diabetes. Monitoring blood glucose levels should be a priority, because any kind of infection can raise blood sugar levels. This increases the need for water, so it’s important to have an adequate supply. To prepare for a quarantine, make sure you have enough medication, testing supplies, and food to last for at least a month. 

People with diabetes should be particularly careful about social contact. “As a diabetic, I would avoid supermarkets or other public gatherings,” Dr. Pena said. 

COVID-19 doesn’t only affect people with pre-existing physical conditions—it can have a serious impact on those with mental health issues, like anxiety and depression, even if you are not infected with the coronavirus.

“Fear of the virus and all the changes it’s causing are driving anxiety levels up for everyone, but for people who have an anxiety disorder it’s so much worse,” Gail Saltz, MD, associate professor of psychiatry at the NY Presbyterian Hospital Weill-Cornell School of medicine and host of the upcoming Personology podcast from iHeartRadio, tells Health. Dr. Saltz warns that people who have managed their disorder may relapse, and those actively struggling may be much more symptomatic. 

“Anxiety also worsens depression, particularly those whose depression is of the ‘agitated’ variety, a subtype of the illness characterized by jittery, anxious, irritable behavior,” she adds. 

People with anxiety or depression who are at home with someone who has COVID-19 may find the burden of caregiving to cause their mental health to deteriorate further. “Caregiving is very stressful,” says Dr. Saltz. “In many cases it’s a 24/7 role and for those already struggling, it can be overwhelming.” She adds that social distancing, quarantining, and losing the structure of work or school can also increase symptoms of both anxiety and depression by increasing feelings of loneliness. 

By actively focusing on mental health, however, those symptoms can be reduced. Dr. Saltz recommends exercising for 30 minutes each day and trying relaxation techniques like deep breathing and mindfulness to help keep anxiety at bay.

It’s also important to have structure in your day, even if you’re self-isolating or in quarantine, she says. This means getting up at the same time as you normally would, taking a shower, getting dressed, creating and sticking to a schedule, and maintaining normal sleep. If you work from home, make a dedicated workstation. 

If you need professional help, it’s still there for you even if you can’t get to the doctor’s office. “Most therapists are moving to online sessions to accommodate their patients,” says Dr. Saltz. If you take medication for your mental health, make sure you have a 30-day supply. 

Loneliness is an issue for people in all age groups, and even if you don’t have mental health issues yourself, you probably know someone who does. “Check in with those you know who are also self-isolating,” says Dr. Saltz says. “Talking to and supporting others is likely to make you feel better as well.” 

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory and nerve stimulant solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

Doesn’t Your Health Deserve D’OXYVA?

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Non-Invasive Treatments: What No One Is Talking About

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Sometimes it seems like the best way to guess a person’s age is by how much medicine they take daily. This system is not perfect, as some people start medications early in life, but we all seem to accumulate pills and creams as we age. That is why it can be a relief to discover an application that can be used for multiple health disorders. 

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Alexa, a 58-year-old woman from Texas, United States, has suffered from type 2 diabetes for more than 6 years. She has been taking multiple medications and treatments such as inhibitors, metformin, pain relievers and antibiotics for her diabetic foot wound. After discovering D’OXYVA, a non-invasive application that significantly helped with her pain and wound management after 5 weeks of twice-daily application, she shared that she saved so much when she started decreasing the intake of other medications and avoided a possible amputation just by using this non-invasive application.

D’OXYVA, for example, can be applied for a variety of conditions related to poor circulation. This multi-application product helps consumers save money, space, and time while simplifying everyday life.

Here are a few things about non-invasive treatments that people seem unwilling to discuss.

In layman’s terms, non-invasive treatments do not break the skin or enter beyond the surface of body openings. Invasive treatments include surgery and injections. Because the needles actually penetrate the skin, acupuncture is also considered an invasive procedure. Certain procedures may be considered minimally invasive if they do not penetrate deeply into the body or only require a small incision.

Non-invasive procedures include massage and gas delivery systems such as D’OXYVA.

By nature, an invasive procedure can be hazardous. Even under a doctor’s care, for example, minimally invasive surgical procedures carry risks (Mayo Clinic). Patients can experience unforeseen complications related to anesthesia, infections, or bleeding. While these risks are mitigated with less serious regular treatments, any invasive procedure carries the potential for infections or bleeding complications.

While you should always trust your medical professional’s advice, many non-invasive treatments can be safer. Most doctors will attempt to find the least invasive, most effective treatment.

Although the human body contains many different cells and functional systems, most of them share the same basic processes. For example, every cell in the body depends on a healthy circulation system to receive nutrients and oxygen. Therefore, when a person has circulation problems, it can manifest as a number of issues. Your doctor may be able to recommend one product like D’OXYVA for multiple circulation-related issues.

Examples of Circulation Related Issues

  • Slow-healing wounds, especially those related to diabetes or other cardiovascular issues
  • Septic shock related to a severe infection or a compromised immune system
  • Many forms of chronic pain
  • Varicose veins and other blemishes

 

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory and nerve stimulant solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

If you suffer from symptoms related to poor circulation, you may not need to suffer in silence.

        BUY D’OXYVA

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Looking into the eye of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease with many patients suffering from cardiovascular comorbidity. However, cardiovascular diseases remain often undiagnosed in COPD.

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Assessment of the retinal microvasculature can provide value in cardiovascular profiling of these patients. Retinal microvascular assessment carried out via a noninvasive eye exam represents an easy to use tool when examining patients with COPD. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of studies assessing structural and functional changes in the retinal microvasculature of patients with COPD. Findings demonstrated that structural and functional microvascular changes were more common and severe in COPD patients as compared to non‐COPD controls, although few retinal investigations have been performed in patients with COPD. As cardiovascular comorbidities are highly prevalent in COPD, we advocate more research to investigate the value of an eye exam for microvascular phenotyping of COPD patients.

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.
Noninvasive retinal analysis for cardiovascular profiling of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

In addition, assessment of dynamic changes in retinal vessel diameter during flicker light stimulation can provide important functional information, as it is a measure of the vascular reactivity and reflects the endothelial function of the microcirculation (Heitmar & Summers 2012). Dysfunction of the endothelium, represented by a reduced flicker light‐induced vasodilatation, precedes the development of vascular changes, which can eventually result in cardiovascular events (Flammer et al. 2013). An impaired flicker light‐induced vasodilatation has already been demonstrated in patients with increased cardiovascular risk, such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia (Heitmar & Summers 2012; Lim et al. 2013). Furthermore, dynamic assessment of the orbital vessels, using colour Doppler ultrasonography, has demonstrated that changes in blood flow velocity and resistive index (RI), are associated with various vascular disorders, and have clinical importance for the prediction of coronary artery disease (Tranquart et al. 2003; Maruyoshi et al. 2010).

Structural and functional assessment of the vasculature of the eye is used in many epidemiological and clinical research settings and the aim of this paper is to bring together the information that is available on patients with COPD.

Conclusions

Structural and functional assessment of the vasculature of the eye has provided useful information in a myriad of epidemiological and clinical research settings, with the ability to provide value for cardiovascular risk prediction. Cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, obesity, diabetes) are usually preceded by changes in the microvasculature. A substantial number of patients suffering from COPD have microvascular complications and are at risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Considering the utility of retinal imaging in other clinical domains, we suggest to also consider retinal imaging for better phenotyping COPD patients (Figure 1). However, our systematic analysis suggests that this field is largely unexplored, and longitudinal studies assessing the association between microvascular changes in the eye and enhanced cardiovascular risk in COPD are lacking.

We identified four different methods for structural and functional assessment of the vasculature of the eye: OCT, retinal fundus imaging, retinal oximetry or colour Doppler ultrasonography. Available data suggest the presence of structural and functional microvascular changes in eyes of patients with COPD, including increased retinal venular caliber, lower retinal arterial oxygen saturation, impaired hemodynamics and increased RI of the orbital vessels. Results on choroidal thickness are contradictory. Authors speculated that the changes in microvasculature are related to systemic inflammation and hypoxia in COPD. Indeed, both systemic inflammation and hypoxia play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. We advocate studies focusing on the characterization of the retinal microvasculature in patients with COPD, including validation using echocardiography and electrocardiogram and repeated assessments to establish stability over time. Moreover, assessment during COPD exacerbations resulting in hospitalizations is of interest as these exacerbations are associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Considering the high prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular comorbidity in COPD patients, and the fact that cardiovascular comorbidities are often undiagnosed, retinal imaging techniques might be valuables tools for further cardiovascular phenotyping of patients with COPD, which may lead to better patient stratification and more individualized treatments.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

D’OXYVA’s versatile, over-the-skin, non-toxic CO₂ and soothing vapor delivery system has the potential to dramatically improve microcirculation and the comprehensive function of developing lungs.

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Impaired Hemorheology in Exacerbations of COPD

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Cardiovascular-related comorbidities are established to contribute to morbidity and mortality especially during exacerbations. The aim of the current study was to determine alterations in hemorheology (erythrocyte aggregation, deformability) in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare with values of COPD patients with exacerbations.

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Introduction

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable, and manageable disease process that is characterized by progressive persistent airflow restrictions and related to increased chronic inflammatory reaction of the airways and lungs against harmful gases and particles [1]. Exacerbations of COPD are defined as the worsening of symptoms such as increment of dyspnea, phlegm volume, and phlegm purulence, usually accompanied by hypoxia and hypercapnia [23]. The most common causes of COPD exacerbations are infections. Inflammation is an important component of the disease [4]. Macrophages and neutrophils play an important role in the inflammatory process [5]. On the other hand, RBC were proposed as biosensors for the stadium of COPD [6]. Nowadays, COPD treatment options include quitting smoking, pharmacological treatment (short-acting anticholinergic, short-acting beta2-agonist, long-acting anticholinergic, long-acting beta2-agonist, and inhaled corticosteroids), and nonpharmacological treatment (pulmonary rehabilitation) [79]. Aim of pharmacological treatment is to improve the quality of life and exercise tolerance beside achieving the reduction of symptoms and attacks [78]. Inhaled corticosteroids specifically reduce the number of COPD exacerbations [10]. In COPD exacerbation first of all, it is important to identify the etiology. Viral and bacterial infections, air pollution, and environmental factors can initiate COPD exacerbation. Thus, antibiotics and oral steroids are choices of treatment [11].

Hemorheology is a branch of biorheology that focuses on blood and its interactions in both macro- and microcirculation under the influence of the applied constraints [12]. Erythrocyte deformability, red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, hematocrit (Hct), and blood viscosity are well-known components of hemorheology [1214]. The flow properties of blood play significant roles in tissue perfusion. These properties are influenced by pathophysiological processes, including a variety of pulmonary diseases, thereby increasing the clinical relevance of blood rheology information [131517]. In COPD patients, RBC were shown to alter morphologically, like cytoskeleton changes, ultrastructural modifications, and reductions of glycophorin A, band 3, and RBC thiols [71819]. Rheological blood properties were demonstrated to progressively deteriorate as pulmonary insufficiency increases in patients with chronic bronchitis [18]. There are limited number of studies exploring hemorheological alterations in COPD [162022]. The results of these studies were obtained either from COPD patients at different stages of the illness and age [182022] or from patients receiving different types of therapy (medication, exercise) [162023]. Additionally, different types of measurement techniques, some being rather old, were used in a variety of the studies mentioned above, which makes it difficult to compare the results [202124]. Thus, we aimed to determine the possible alterations in RBC deformability and aggregation in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare these parameters with values of COPD patients with exacerbations for the first time in the literature. The results of the current study are expected to contribute to the formation of alternative treatment options for COPD.

Statistical Analyses

Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD), median (minimum–maximum values), and categorical variables as number and percent. Shapiro-Wilk tests were used for testing normality. If parametric test conditions were satisfied, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons among groups. The post hoc Tukey test was used when the ANOVA determined a significant difference. If parametric test conditions were not satisfied, the Kruskal-Wallis Variance Analysis was used for comparisons among groups. The post hoc Mann–Whitney  Test with Bonferroni Correction was used when the Kruskal-Wallis Variance Analysis determined a significant difference. For pairwise comparisons, if parametric test conditions were satisfied, Paired Samples -test was used and if parametric test conditions were not satisfied, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used. All statistical analyses were done by SPSS 21.0. Power of the study was found to be over 95% with 95% confidence ( = 0.05).

Conclusion

In overview, the results of the current study indicate that exacerbations of COPD are characterized by significant hemorheological abnormalities known to adversely affect blood flow. The decrement observed in RBC deformability and the increment shown in erythrocyte aggregation during exacerbations might complement other pathophysiologic mechanisms, leading to worsening of oxygenation and thus clinical symptoms. The mechanisms of the hemorheological alterations could not be clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved. Therapeutic approaches including antioxidants for normalizing hemorheological parameters during exacerbations of COPD may also be recommended. However, whether therapies to decrease RBC aggregation and enhance deformability directly and specifically can be developed and whether such therapies will relieve the patient’s symptoms remain an area of active investigation. Further research with a larger number of patients to explain the mechanisms of hemorheological alterations may be necessary.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless transdermal (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been clinically tested to significantly improve microcirculation.

D’OXYVA’s versatile, over-the-skin, non-toxic CO₂ and soothing vapor delivery system has the potential to dramatically improve microcirculation and the comprehensive function of developing lungs.

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The Epidemiology of Vascular Dysfunction Relating to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Emphysema

copd

Cor pulmonale has long been described in very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema. Cross-sectional results from population-based studies show that left ventricular filling and a variety of vascular measures in the systemic circulation are abnormal in preclinical COPD and emphysema and that a predominant vascular change in COPD and emphysema is endothelial and microvascular dysfunction. 

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These findings suggest that pulmonary vascular changes may occur early in COPD and emphysema and might contribute to pathogenesis. However, longitudinal epidemiologic studies with direct measures of the pulmonary vasculature are lacking; therefore, inferences are limited at present. New imaging-based approaches to the assessment of the pulmonary vasculature are applicable to epidemiologic studies and may help in defining the relationship of pulmonary vascular damage to progression of COPD and emphysema. These measures may also provide imaging-based surrogate markers, and novel therapeutics targeted to the pulmonary vasculature might reduce symptoms and improve function in these common diseases.

Cor Pulmonale: Pulmonary Heart Disease

Increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure have long been known to occur in very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema (1). Classic reports of cor pulmonale describe elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and right heart failure with reductions in left ventricular filling, left ventricular stroke volume, and cardiac output, but generally preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (24).

Clinical experience has demonstrated mild resting pulmonary hypertension in severe COPD without a significant reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction, although exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension is more common (1). In this usual schema, cor pulmonale is generally absent in mild, moderate, and even severe COPD but develops as an effect of end-stage, very severe COPD. The relationship between the FEV1 and left ventricular stroke volume can be conceptualized as resembling a hockey stick, with little effect of airflow limitation on left ventricular hemodynamics until the FEV1 is very severely reduced.

Conclusions

Cor pulmonale has long been described in very severe COPD and emphysema. Cross-sectional results from population-based studies that have used a variety of vascular measures in the systemic circulation suggest that the predominant vascular change in COPD and particularly emphysema is endothelial and microvascular dysfunction. Longitudinal epidemiologic studies with direct measures of the pulmonary vasculature are lacking to date; therefore, inferences on cause and effect are limited at present. New imaging-based approaches to the assessment of the pulmonary vasculature are applicable to epidemiologic studies and may soon help in defining the relationship of pulmonary vascular damage to progression of emphysema and COPD and may provide imaging-based surrogate markers. Extant cardiovascular drugs and novel therapeutic agents targeted to the pulmonary vasculature might reduce symptoms and improve function in emphysema and COPD. Statins, for example, have long been known to improve endothelial function in humans and have recently been shown to improve pulmonary arterial endothelial function, reduce pulmonary artery pressure, and reduce emphysema in animals exposed to cigarette smoke (66).

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

D’OXYVA’s versatile, over-the-skin, non-toxic CO₂ and soothing vapor delivery system has the potential to dramatically improve microcirculation and the comprehensive function of developing lungs.

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Oxygen dependence of endothelium-dependent vasodilation: importance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

copd

Epidemiological studies have shown increased morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to characterize the oxygen dependence of endothelial function in patients with CAD and coexisting COPD.

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Material and methods

 In CAD patients with and without COPD (n = 33), we non-invasively measured flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) of the brachial artery (BA), forearm blood flow (FBF), and perfusion of the cutaneous microcirculation with laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). In an experimental setup, vascular function was assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 5) breathing 12% oxygen or 100% oxygen in comparison to room air.

Results

COPD was associated with impaired FMD (3.4 ±0.5 vs. 4.2 ±0.6%; p < 0.001) and increased IMT (0.49 ±0.04 vs. 0.44 ±0.04 mm; p <0.01), indicating functional and structural alterations of the BA in COPD. Forearm blood flow and LDPI were comparable between the groups. Flow-mediated dilation correlated with capillary oxygen pressure (pO2, r = 0.608). Subgroup analysis in COPD patients with pO2 > 65 mm Hg and pO2  65 mm Hg revealed even lower FMD in patients with lower pO2 (3.0 ±0.5 vs. 3.7 ±0.4%; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that pO2 was a predictor of FMD independent of the forced expiratory volume and pack years. Exposure to hypoxic air led to an acute decrease in FMD, whereby exposure to 100% oxygen did not change vascular function.

Conclusions 

Our data suggest that in CAD patients with COPD, decreased systemic oxygen levels lead to endothelial dysfunction, underlining the relevance of cardiopulmonary interaction and the potential importance of pulmonary treatment in secondary prevention of vascular disease.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

D’OXYVA’s versatile, over-the-skin, non-toxic CO₂ and soothing vapor delivery system has the potential to dramatically improve microcirculation and the comprehensive function of developing lungs.