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Venous Hypoxia: A Poorly Studied Etiological Factor of Varicose Veins

Venous hypoxia has long been postulated as a potential cause of varicosity formation. This article aimed to review the development of this hypothesis, including evidence supporting and controversies surrounding it. Vein wall oxygenation is achieved by oxygen diffusing from luminal blood and vasa vasorum. The whole media of varicosities is oxygenated by vasa vasorum as compared to only the outer two-thirds of media of normal veins. There was no evidence that differences exist between oxygen content of blood from varicose and non-varicose veins, although the former demonstrated larger fluctuations with postural changes. Studies using cell culture and ex vivo explants demonstrated that hypoxia activated leucocytes and endothelium which released mediators regulating vein wall remodelling similar to those observed in varicosities. Venoactive drugs may improve venous oxygenation, and inhibit hypoxia activation of leucocytes and endothelium. The evidence for hypoxia as a causative factor in varicosities remains inconclusive, mainly due to heterogeneity and poor design of published in vivo studies. However, molecular studies have shown that hypoxia was able to cause inflammatory changes and vein wall remodelling similar to those observed in varicosities. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of the role of hypoxia and help identify potential therapeutic targets.

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Introduction

Varicose veins are excessively dilated, elongated and tortuous veins, and affect up to a third of the adult population in Europe [1,2]. The cost of treating varicose veins and associated complications has been estimated at 1–3% of the total annual health care budget in European countries [3]. Despite the unquestionable clinical significance of the condition, the pathogenesis of varicose veins remains unclear. There is increasing evidence that alteration of the vein wall is the primary abnormality in varicose veins [4,5]. Numerous changes in cellular and extracellular matrix components of the vein wall have been identified, including intimal hyperplasia, smooth muscle cell dysfunction, changes to the collagen and elastin content and imbalances of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors [4,5,6,7]. These changes are thought to cause an overall weakening and relaxation of vein wall leading to venous dilatation, valve incompetence and reflux.

Vein wall hypoxia has been suggested as a contributing factor for varicose vein formation [5,6,8,9]. For several decades, many in vivo and in vitro studies have assessed the relationship between hypoxia and varicose vein formation. However, opinions remain divided on the evidence evaluating hypoxia as a possible factor contributing to varicose vein formation. The aim of this article was to revisit and review the published evidence for the controversial hypothesis of vein wall hypoxia contributing to the formation of varicose veins.

Methods

PubMed, Embase and Ovid Medline databases were searched using the terms ‘varicose veins and blood oxygen’, ‘varicose veins and vasa vasorum’ and ‘varicose veins and hypoxia’. No date limitation was used during the search. All available abstracts were reviewed. Of these, articles that discussed the relationships between oxygenation and varicose vein formation were evaluated. Articles that were not related to chronic venous disease were excluded. This review focused on studies assessing the relationship between oxygen tension and varicose vein formation in patients of clinical stages C2 to C6 of Clinical Etiology Anatomical Pathophysiology classification.

Hypoxia and Treatment of Varicose Veins

Few studies have investigated potential pharmacologic agents that may protect the vein wall from hypoxia. The most commonly studied group of pharmacological agents in this context has been the venoactive drugs such as flavonoids [19,41,55,57,62]. Venoactive drugs are often derived from plant extracts, and their therapeutic actions include increased venous tone, reduced vein wall inflammation and decreased capillary permeability [6,63].

In vitro models have been used to investigate the effects of venoactive drugs on hypoxia-induced endothelial and PMN activation [41,57]. In a HUVEC model, aescin was shown to inhibit hypoxia-induced activation of endothelial cells, leucocytes, and the interactions of these cells in a dose-dependent manner [41,57]. Venoactive drugs were also shown to target complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain or adenine nucleotide translocase, reduce oxidative stress, and increase ATP synthesis during hypoxia [8,41,64]. A further study used an ex vivo vein explant model and found that flavonoids significantly reduced the oxygen consumption of varicose veins [55].

One clinical study reported that patients who took hydroxyethylrutosides (Paroven™) 250 mg, a flavonoid, 4 times a day for 4 weeks showed significant improvements in the PO2 and saturation of blood sampled from varicose veins compared to initial levels [19]. These improvements in varicose vein oxygenation were also associated with symptomatic relief in this patient group [19]. However, the findings of this study should be interpreted with caution as patients were not randomized, neither patients nor clinicians were blinded, and the timing of venepuncture was not matched between the study groups. It was also unclear whether the patients in the study received any other treatment such as compression which might have positive effects on the oxygenation of the luminal blood. Some randomized controlled trials have also reported that venoactive drugs such as flavonoids and horse-chestnut extracts improved symptoms of CVI [63,65,66,67]. These drugs are likely to increase venous tone and decrease vein wall inflammation and capillary permeability [6,63]. Flavonoids such as micronized purified flavonoid fraction, containing 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin, may also protect the vein wall from hypoxia and inhibit the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelium and leucocyte [6,17,67,68].

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA® is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory and nerve stimulant solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation and oxygenation.

D’OXYVA has proven to eliminate* 97% of mild to severe varicose veins in men and women.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

Reduce unwanted doctor visits, recommended and ranked top by experts!

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Women’s blood vessels age faster than men’s: Study

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

New research shows for the first time that women’s blood vessels, both large and small arteries, age at a faster rate than men’s.

The findings, published Wednesday in JAMA Cardiology, challenge the long-held belief that vascular disease and cardiovascular risk in women lags behind men by up to 20 years, concluding that certain vascular changes in women actually develop earlier and progress faster in women compared to men.

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“We were inspired to take a much closer look at blood pressure trajectories over the life course in women compared to men because, at the end of the day, the vast majority of cardiovascular disease processes tend to start with blood pressure elevation as a major driving risk factor,” said Dr. Susan Cheng, director of public health research at the Smidt Heart Institute at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, and senior author on the study.

The study looked at nearly 145,000 blood pressure measurements from more than 32,000 people, ranging in age from 5 to 98, over the course of four decades.

Researchers found that blood pressure started increasing in women as early as 30, and continued to rise higher than blood pressure in men throughout the women’s life span.

“Our findings suggest that all the ways by which we think about and aim to prevent or treat high blood pressure likely needs to be more tailored, for women,” Cheng said.

One of the reasons Goldberg, who was not involved in the study, cited for patients not taking their blood pressure medications is that people stop taking them if their blood pressure improves. Treating blood pressure is not like treating a pneumonia or cough, patients must continue to take blood pressure medication for them to be effective.

“We need to be more vigilant, because when high blood pressure is treated it is a way of preventing other diseases, like stroke, heart attacks and heart failure,” Goldberg said.

Dr. Manavjeet Sidhu, MD, MBA, is a chief resident physician in emergency medicine and contributor to the ABC News Medical Unit.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless transdermal (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been clinically tested to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

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Signs You’re at Risk for Spider Veins

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Spider veins are dilated superficial blood vessels that often appear on the surface of the lower extremities or on the face. They are usually caused by damage to the small valves in veins, which causes backflow, increased pressure and venous dilation.

An example of a patient with spider veins is Helen R., a 38-year-old white female with a history of spider veins behind both knees and thighs bilaterally that developed after pregnancy.

Helen had a medical history of deep venous thromboses in both legs at the age of 35. She also had a history of smoking one pack of cigarettes per day for the past 25 years. Helen had gained 40 pounds during her pregnancy.

To treat her spider veins, Helen was placed on a treatment regimen with D’OXYVA,[1]  a transdermal deoxyhemoglobin microcirculation vasodilator. She was given 5-minute applications 5 times per week for 2 weeks, which eliminated all of her spider veins.

How Does D’OXYVA Eliminate Spider Veins?

D’OXYVA works to eliminate spider veins by delivering a mixture of water vapor and pharmaceutical grade CO2 under pressure through the surface of the skin to the microcirculation (the smallest blood vessels in the body), which improves and normalizes circulation and oxygenation.

D’OXYVA also works by balancing the effects of the autonomic nervous system (the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems) to achieve a state of homeostasis.

Major Risk Factors for the Development of Spider Veins

There are a number of risk factors for the development of spider/varicose veins. These include:

  • Gender—Female patients have a much higher risk of developing spider veins[2]than male patients.
  • Genetic history—The majority of patients with spider veins have a close relative with spider veins.
  • Pregnancy—Pregnancy increases the downward pressure on veins in the lower extremities, leading to an increase in spider veins.
  • Weight—Obese patients have an increased body mass index, which puts added strain on the veins of the lower extremities, causing spider veins.
  • Age—With increasing age, the valves in the veins can become weaker, leading to backflow and pooling of blood in the veins, which increases venous pressure and causes spider veins.
  • Birth Control Pills—Patients on birth control pills have a higher risk of developing spider veins than women who are not on birth control pills.
  • Sitting/Standing for Long Periods of Time – Extended periods of sitting or standing without changing positions can lead to pooling of blood in the lower extremities, leading to the development of spider veins.
  • A History of Lower Extremity Blood Clots—Deep venous thromboses (DVTs), which are blood clots in the deep veins of the legs, can lead to damaged valves and resultant spider veins.
  • Hormonal Therapy—Patients on hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms are also at increased risk for developing spider veins.
Ways to Decrease the Risks of Developing Spider Veins

To decrease the risk of developing spider veins,[3] here are some helpful suggestions:

  • Maintain a healthy diet and exercise program to establish a healthy weight.
  • Avoid sitting or standing for more than 30 minutes at a time.
  • Avoid crossing your legs when sitting for long periods of time, as this can decrease circulation.
  • Avoid wearing high heels for long periods of time, as this can reduce blood circulation in the calf muscles.
  • Elevate your feet whenever possible when taking a break from work or extended sitting or standing.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

D’OXYVA® (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) has eliminated 97%* of all mild to severe so-called spider and varicose veins for both men and women users. Doing so while eliminating associated long-term pain within 2 to 4 weeks** by taking a single 5-minute application 5 times per week.

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Why Good Blood Circulation Is Important for Overall Health

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Proper blood circulation is the most important function of the human body, and it can play a very big role in one’s overall health. One of the vital components of the body, which is involved in this function, is the heart.

People often underestimate the important role of lifestyle choices on blood circulation, which can be significantly hindered by those choices. The following can negatively affect blood circulation:

  • Smoking
  • Not doing regular physical exercise
  • Leaving blood clots untreated
  • Having certain illnesses like heart diseases or diabetes

Patients suffering from poor blood circulation issues must consult Circularity Healthcare for advice and treatment.

The following are ways that blood circulation can impact a person’s health:

Benefits of good blood circulation

The following are a few benefits of good blood circulation:

  1. The body can maintain healthy oxygen and blood flow, which will allow the heart, lungs and muscles to function properly and efficiently.
  2. The body can avoid and fight diseases and sicknesses. In addition, white blood cells in the immune system can be transported around the body as needed.
  3. The organs will remain in proper working order and help remove waste from the body.

Risks of poor blood circulation

The following are a few effects of having poor blood circulation:

  1. One may feel a lack of energy, inability to concentrate and excessive tiredness.
  2. Limited oxygen flow to the brain can cause memory glitches.
  3. Women may suffer from hair loss or alopecia.
  4. Men may suffer from erectile dysfunction.
  5. Sores and cuts may take much longer to heal.
  6. Poor blood circulation may cause amputation of the affected limb.

 

How can one improve circulation?

To improve blood circulation, a person needs to make a few lifestyle changes. The following tips can help:

  1. Doing yoga involves the stretching and bending of the body to different postures for a certain duration. In the beginning, it may be little difficult, but soon with regular practice, one can achieve the desired results.
  2. Massages can be another great way of relaxing and unwinding. This can also help in bonding well with a partner.
  3. Engaging in certain cardiovascular exercises can help one maintain a healthy weight and can improve blood circulation.
  4. It is also important to keep the body well hydrated by drinking enough liquids, including water, to flush out all the toxins present in the blood.
  5. Many people are not aware that eating seafood can also improve blood circulation because of the omega-3 fatty acids it contains. A few of the healthiest choices are salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines.

People suffering from poor blood circulation always risk getting blood clots and must contact a physician or healthcare professional for proper advice on improving blood circulation.

      BUY D’OXYVA

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) is the first of its kind biotech solution. D’OXYVA has been clinically validated for a variety of significant and rare health, athletic, and cosmetic benefits with record time and cost savings. The FDA-cleared medical CO2 and gentle vapor dissolves in a molecular form in the skin to improve skin perfusion pressure or blood circulation.

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Understanding the Importance of Microcirculation for Patients with Spider Veins and Varicose Veins

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Spider veins and varicose veins are not only unsightly and potentially indicative of more serious medical conditions but can also lead to emotional distress and fear when considering treatment options. Many patients who wish to have either their spider or varicose veins removed are concerned with the risks and side effects of surgical or other invasive treatments. Non-invasive effective treatments are now available that do not have the risks of surgery. Read on to learn more about the importance of microcirculation in the treatment of spider and varicose veins.

What is Microcirculation?

Microcirculation refers to the smallest blood vessels in the body which consist of the arterioles, the capillaries and the venules. These tiny blood vessels deliver oxygen to the tissues and remove waste products including C02. Abnormal microcirculation changes can result in severe damage to both the small veins and arteries and is a causative factor in both spider veins and varicose veins. Treatment with transdermal D’OXYVA (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) has been found to be successful in treating both varicose veins and spider veins.1

What are Spider Veins?

Spider veins2 also known as telangiectasias, are groups of tiny blood vessels that grow on the skin’s surface.

They are often blue, purple or reddish in nature.

They are frequently seen on the face and legs and have a spiderweb like appearance.

What are Varicose Veins?

Varicose veinsare abnormal dilation of veins that often occur on the lower extremities.

They are usually purple, blue and abnormally color the skin.

They appear as dilated and bulging vessels that are above the skin’s surface.

What are the Causes of Spider Veins and Varicose Veins?

If the one-way valves in veins that normally prevent blood backflow become damaged or weakened, the blood may struggle to flow in the right direction and will begin to pool inside the blood vessels.

This causes increased pressure in the veins which weaken their walls causing them to dilate resulting in pooling of blood that ultimately results in spider veins and varicose veins.

Comparison between Spider Vein and Varicose Vein Symptoms

Spider veins are usually small, tiny and flat, appearing blue, purple or red and are usually painless.

Varicose veins are larger and deeper than spider veins. They are twisted and have a red or fleshy color.

Varicose veins can cause itching, pain, bleeding, swelling of the legs or ankles and a heavy feeling in the legs.

Spider Vein and Varicose Vein Statistics and Risk Factors

Spider veins and varicose veins are very common with 30% to 60% of adults having either varicose veins or spider veins.4

Statistically, more women are affected with both conditions than men and the risk of both varicose veins and spider veins increases with age.

There are several risk factors that may increase the possibility of getting spider veins or varicose veins.

These include:

  • Genetic factors
  • Pregnancy
  • Hormonal therapy (HT)
  • Prior vein surgery
  • Birth Control Pills
  • Pregnancy
  • Constipation

Prevention of Spider Veins and Varicose Veins

The following provide some useful tips on how to prevent spider veins and varicose veins:

  • Engage in regular exercise:This enables you to reduce pressure on the veins which allows blood to circulate freely.
  • Wear compression socks: Compression stockings help to reduce or prevent the occurrence of spider veins and varicose veins.
  • Avoid tight clothing: It is important to avoid clothes that are very restrictive especially around the waist, legs or pelvic region.
  • Decrease your weight:Losing weight can help to optimize lower extremity blood flow.

Treatment of Spider Veins and Varicose Veins

There are several methods to reduce the occurrence of spider veins and varicose veins in the body. They include the following:

The Use of Support Stockings

Support stockings are one of the more effective ways to reduce the symptoms of spider and varicose veins in the legs since compression improves circulation.

Compression/support stockings come in several different styles and colors.

Regular Exercise

Regular exercise such as daily walking helps alleviate the symptoms of both spider veins and varicose veins.

Ligation Therapy

Ligation therapy involves surgically tying off a varicose vein and removing it.

Sclerotherapy

Sclerotherapy is the process of injecting a chemical into a varicose vein which causes scarring and sclerosing of and then a collapse of the vein.

Radio Frequency Ablation

Radio Frequency Ablation involves using radio waves to cause the walls of veins to heat up and close off.

Treatment with a Deoxyhemoglobin Vasodilator

Transdermal deoxyhemoglobin vasodilators like D’OXYVA have been found to increase the amount of blood flow to areas with low oxygen5 and in addition have been found to be a very effective treatment for both varicose and spider veins.

 

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA® (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) has eliminated 97%* of all mild to severe so-called spider and varicose veins for both men and women users. Doing so while eliminating associated long-term pain within 2 to 4 weeks** by taking a single 5-minute application 5 times per week.

Get rid of dark spider and varicose veins and significantly reduce downtime and pain for skin irritation and damage you may experience from your existing skin treatments. 

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Venous leg ulcer prevention: Identifying patients who are at risk

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.
Abstract

Ulceration of the lower limbs results in painful and often debilitating leg wounds that can have a profound effect on patients’ physical, social and psychological wellbeing. It is estimated that the UK spends nearly £2bn each year managing lower limb ulceration but NHS England has highlighted that the care patients receive is often sub-optimal and unwarranted variation results in higher costs and longer healing times. Rates of non-healing are both common and costly, which adds to the burden on patients and the healthcare system. The prevalence of leg ulceration is higher in older age groups and, as our population ages, the problem is likely to increase. All nurses have a vital role in identifying patients at risk of ulceration and supporting them to take preventative action to prevent skin breakdown. This article, the first in a three-part series on the prevention of leg ulceration, looks at how nurses can identify at-risk patients.

 

Introduction

Lower-leg ulceration affects around 1.5% of adults in the UK, with 730,000 people having often painful and debilitating leg wounds (Guest et al, 2015). Prevalence is highest among people aged 60-80 years, and increases with age (Farah and Davis, 2010), so the ageing population signals a growing problem.

Approximately 70% of lower-leg ulceration relates to venous disease (Casey, 2004), a debilitating condition affecting millions of people worldwide (O’Donnell et al, 2014). Varicose veins are often a first sign of venous disease and are a predictive factor in developing ulceration (Robertson et al, 2011) (Fig 1). The incidence of varicose veins in the adult population ranges from 10% to 60% worldwide (Selçuk Kapısız et al, 2014), and is estimated at 36% in the UK (Robertson, 2013; Evans et al, 1999).

Conclusion

Compression therapy has an important role to play in the prevention of leg ulceration but a greater emphasis on prevention is needed if the considerable burden of managing leg ulceration is to be reduced. Nurses should actively assess patients’ legs for signs of venous disease and oedema, and undertake opportunistic assessment whenever possible. Ensuring appropriate early intervention will improve patient outcomes and result in significant cost savings to health services.

Key points

*Lower-leg ulceration affects 1.5% of adults in the UK, and an ageing population means the number is likely to grow
*Prevention and management are often sub-optimal, leading to non-healing and a near doubling of patients each year
*Venous leg ulceration is the most severe manifestation of chronic venous disease caused by venous hypertension
*Skin changes are the biggest predictor of ulceration, with lower-limb oedema also being a risk
*Nurses need to spot the early signs of venous leg ulceration and take preventative action, such as using compression therapy

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA® (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) has eliminated 97%* of all mild to severe so-called spider and varicose veins for both men and women users. Doing so while eliminating associated long-term pain within 2 to 4 weeks** by taking a single 5-minute application 5 times per week.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

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I started using D’OXYVA for my varicose veins, and here’s what happened in just four weeks

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Annie, 35 and a mother to 3 kids, shared her story of how D’OXYVA took away her worries about the pain and appearance of varicose veins and gave her a major confidence boost in just 4 weeks.

Varicose veins have long bothersome on both sides of my family, so I was not surprised when I started to get them a little early in life,” said Annie.

Annie is an active mother and athlete. She began to notice a heaviness and pain in one of her legs long before a single varicose vein began to show up on the back of her thigh and slowly spread down her leg.

“I have always lived a healthy and active lifestyle, running and swimming being my passions, yet I still wasn’t able to escape severe vein disease. By the time I had my third child, it was painful to walk, [and even more] when I tried to continue any physical activities with my kids. The pain was unbearable,” she said.

She described how her legs looked awful, her self-confidence was disappearing, and she couldn’t wear shorts or skirts until a friend told her about D’OXYVA. She did some research and she realized that there was a safe, effective, and innovative alternative way to treat her varicose veins.

“I was a young mom with legs that looked and made me feel as though I was 100. If possible, I didn’t want to undergo any surgical procedures. After going to more than 4 vein centers and having no success using non-invasive procedures, this made me decide to try out D’OXYVA,” Annie said.

At first, she was skeptical, but to her delight, the therapy was quick, easy to use, and 100% painless.

“I requested a customized treatment plan; their customer support was so helpful and advised for me to strictly do D’OXYVA therapy once a day by directly spraying the vapor onto to the vein. I couldn’t believe my eyes; after just one 5-minute therapy session, the appearance significantly improved.”

After 4 weeks of D’OXYVA therapy, Annie is back to running better than ever and can even wear shorts without being embarrassed! She’s back on the playing field cheering on her kids, and she’s back to feeling like herself again.

“I finally have my life back and am almost completely pain free. I have such a great appreciation and admiration for everyone behind this amazing product. I have never been treated so personally and kindly by any other company offering [similar] products I have previously tried. I would recommend D’OXYVA to anyone and everyone suffering from varicose veins! The help is there; it may not be as cheap as the OTC remedies, but it’s worth it!”

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.va

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Study of Microcirculation of Patients with Varicose Veins of Lower Limbs

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

Abstract

Varicose veins of lower limbs have always caused, because of their rate, highest social spendings. Those patients who have trophic disturbances often need surgical treatment even after surgical intervention. This condition becomes worse in Southern Europe countries because of environmental and climatic factors.

INTRODUCTION

Varicose veins of lower limbs have always caused, because of their rate,highest social spendings. Those patients
who have trophic disturbances often need surgical treatment even after surgical intervention. This condition becomes worse in Southern Europe countries because of
environmental and climatic factors.
It is therefore necessary to improve diagnostic methods in order to prevent trophic disturbances.
In order to reach this target, our Institute studies all patients affected by varicose disease not only by doppler
c.w. but also by microcirculatory methods, such as Videocapillaroscopy and Reflected Light Rheography on medial malleolus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Thirty patients (24 females and 4 males) suffering from varicose veins of lower limbs at 2nd or 3rd stage of Widmer
classification, were studied by Reflected Light Rheography and Videocapillaroscopy on medial malleolus of both legs.
In order to avoid any interference, capillaroscopy was ever made before RLR; in the same way, no drugs during the
period of study were administered. In the patients with only one affected leg, the other leg gave useful comparison parameters.

RESULTS

In the group of 30 patients the following parameters were evaluated: Venous network, refilling time (TO), venous drain capability (dr), capillaries density and morphology. About rheographic parameters we found TO equal to 12+-3 seconds and dr equal to 100+-50 mV (mean values). In the group of patients at 2nd Widmer stage, TO was equal to 16+-3 seconds and dr was equal to the patients at 3d Widmer stage TO respectively, equal to 8+-2 seconds About capillaroscopic parameters, capillaries density in all subjects; formation” pictures, espectively, (13,3%) patients.

CONCLUSIONS

The study of microcirculation by Capillaroscopy and Rheography, in the patients suffering from varicose veins of lower limbs, was with no doubt useful to demonstrate that any stage of venous disorders causes different microcirculatory alterations. In fact, we found “”halo formation· pictures in patients with more pathological rheographic parameters (TO less than 10 seconds) and nearly all these patients suffered from varicose disease at 3rd stage of Widmer classification. Furthermore, microcirculatory alterations were more evident in patients with trophic disturbances and elder venous disease.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless transdermal (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been clinically tested to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

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7 Subtle Signs That Prove You’re Not As Healthy As You Think You Are

D'OXYVA | Cardiovascular, Diabetes Care, Pain Reliever in CA.

When you say healthy, it often brings to mind an image of person that exercises all the time and only eats nutritious food while avoiding junk like candy and fast food. However, it actually demands so much more than that. Truth is, being truly healthy means that one should have a sense of “physical, mental, and social wellbeing, and the resources to live a full life.”

Of course, we don’t always think of it that way. In fact, in most cases, eating healthy and pairing it with consistent exercise is more than enough. However, while being classified as “overweight” or “underweight” is an obvious sign of being unhealthy, there are also other not-so-obvious signs — ones that you may be ignoring. And ones that may mean you’re not as healthy as you believe you are. Below are some of them.

  1. Snoring – You may think it’s just an embarrassing act, but it can also indicate that you’re not that healthy. In fact, snoring is linked to a variety of health conditions, including sleep apnea, heart disease, and even stroke.
  2. Constant skin breakouts – Skin breakouts are also a sign of general unhealthiness, and unfortunately, there’s no single cause. However, thanks to face mapping, we can now easily adjust our lifestyle based on where we get breakouts. Chin acne for example, means we have to eat healthier, while forehead acne means we need better sleep and hygiene.
  3. The white of your eyes aren’t as white – This one is more subtle, but basically, if your eyes are a tad yellowish, it indicates that you may have complications in your bile ducts, gall bladder, liver or pancreas. There’s also red eyes, which come from lack of sleep and exhaustion.
  4. Your nails have an odd color and texture – A yellowish color in your nails is believed to be caused by fluid build-up and inadequate circulation in the body.
  5. Being gassy – Excessive gas can be signs of an irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and celiac disease.
  6. Constant exhaustion – This one is obvious, but continuous exhaustion means that you may have iron deficiency, too little exercise, and even dehydration.
  7. Your urine doesn’t have a pale color – The color, smell, and density of urine can reveal what’s going on in our body. And in this case, having urine that has a darker color or has a strong scent means that you should probably get yourself checked by a doctor ASAP.

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless transdermal (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been clinically tested to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

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Did you know when used in a regimen, D`OXYVA users have reported a number of health and beauty benefits?

doxyva benefits

OPTIMIZE BLOOD CIRCULATION FOR A WIDE VARIETY OF SIGNIFICANT OUTCOMES

D’OXYVA® (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) in various clinical trials has validated leading independent research results and demonstrated above-average results in improving a host of physiological functions at the same time.

People using D’OXYVA® have recorded significant improvements in cardiovascular activity leading to much improved physical activity. As part of a healthy lifestyle, D’OXYVA may help significantly reduce the risk of high blood pressure, hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes in just two or three months, with an average use of 5 minutes a day and 5 times a week.

Poor circulation is a gateway for a litany of ailments: slow healing, depression, poor complexion, sores, slow metabolism, and more.

D’OXYVA significantly improves sustained oxygen-rich microcirculatory blood flow locally and throughout the body. Its patented method of fully non-invasive, painless, and harmless transdermal delivery is unique only to D’OXYVA.

When used daily, D’OXYVA users have reported a number of health and beauty benefits, including but not limited to:

  • Relief from symptoms of microvascular complications
  • Significantly increased cardiac function, physical fitness, endurance and strength, muscle size, body tone, faster recovery from sports injuries and surgical trauma
  • Improved self-esteem via promoting healthy and radiant skin, complexion, dry skin relief, and acne reduction
  • Significant reduction in downtime from other skin treatments and cosmetic procedures when used in combination, reduction in the appearance of scars, cellulite, fat, spider veins and stretch marks
  • Promoting and maintaining a healthy weight, improving general mobility, deeper, more restful sleep
  • Significant improvement of mental acuity; concentration, problem solving, multitasking, eye-hand coordination, heightened stamina, energy, and focus while managing stress
  • Improved vitals across the board during checkups with zero adverse event reports after years of regular use by people with various health, demographic, and ethnic backgrounds

HOW D’OXYVA CAN HELP?

D’OXYVA is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless transdermal (over-the-skin) microcirculatory solution that has been clinically tested to significantly improve microcirculation.

The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.

Reduce unwanted doctor visits, recommended and ranked top by experts!