Venous hypoxia has long been postulated as a potential cause of varicosity formation. This article aimed to review the development of this hypothesis, including evidence supporting and controversies surrounding it. Vein wall oxygenation is achieved by oxygen diffusing from luminal blood and vasa vasorum. The whole media of varicosities is oxygenated by vasa vasorum as compared to only the outer two-thirds of media of normal veins. There was no evidence that differences exist between oxygen content of blood from varicose and non-varicose veins, although the former demonstrated larger fluctuations with postural changes.
Hypoxia and Treatment of Varicose Veins
Few studies have investigated potential pharmacologic agents that may protect the vein wall from hypoxia. The most commonly studied group of pharmacological agents in this context has been the venoactive drugs such as flavonoids [19,41,55,57,62]. Venoactive drugs are often derived from plant extracts, and their therapeutic actions include increased venous tone, reduced vein wall inflammation and decreased capillary permeability [6,63].
In vitro models have been used to investigate the effects of venoactive drugs on hypoxia-induced endothelial and PMN activation [41,57]. In a HUVEC model, aescin was shown to inhibit hypoxia-induced activation of endothelial cells, leucocytes, and the interactions of these cells in a dose-dependent manner [41,57]. Venoactive drugs were also shown to target complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain or adenine nucleotide translocase, reduce oxidative stress, and increase ATP synthesis during hypoxia [8,41,64]. A further study used an ex vivo vein explant model and found that flavonoids significantly reduced the oxygen consumption of varicose veins .
One clinical study reported that patients who took hydroxyethylrutosides (Paroven™) 250 mg, a flavonoid, 4 times a day for 4 weeks showed significant improvements in the PO2 and saturation of blood sampled from varicose veins compared to initial levels . These improvements in varicose vein oxygenation were also associated with symptomatic relief in this patient group . However, the findings of this study should be interpreted with caution as patients were not randomized, neither patients nor clinicians were blinded, and the timing of venepuncture was not matched between the study groups. It was also unclear whether the patients in the study received any other treatment such as compression which might have positive effects on the oxygenation of the luminal blood. Some randomized controlled trials have also reported that venoactive drugs such as flavonoids and horse-chestnut extracts improved symptoms of CVI [63,65,66,67]. These drugs are likely to increase venous tone and decrease vein wall inflammation and capillary permeability [6,63]. Flavonoids such as micronized purified flavonoid fraction, containing 90% diosmin and 10% hesperidin, may also protect the vein wall from hypoxia and inhibit the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelium and leucocyte [6,17,67,68].
How D'OXYVA Can Help?
D’OXYVA® is the only fully noninvasive, completely painless over-the-skin microcirculatory and nerve stimulant solution that has been validated to significantly improve microcirculation and oxygenation.
D’OXYVA has proven to eliminate* 97% of mild to severe varicose veins in men and women.
The improvement of microcirculation, i.e., blood flow to the smallest blood vessels, benefits one’s health, immune system and overall sense of well-being in a variety of ways.
easy to use daily
How D'OXYVA Works?
For example, D’OXYVA® naturally delivers remarkable and fast pain management results without the use of opioids. In high-quality studies, it has demonstrated noticeable efficacy in the reduction and elimination of chronic pain — achieving over 90% elimination of all varieties of chronic pain in nearly all enrolled subjects the same day or in a few days.
D’OXYVA® (deoxyhemoglobin vasodilator) is a handheld applicator that’s the first biotech solution of its kind, underpinned by widely established, groundbreaking, Nobel Prize–winning science.
It’s been studied to significantly improve macro-, and micro-circulation of blood flow and certain nerve activities in the body, which is widely reported to boost fitness and form an effective noninvasive, pain-free solution for several widespread conditions.
Reduce unwanted doctor visits, recommended and ranked top by experts!